Thin films can also be deposited on surfaces from dispersions or solutions. IWS engineers use spray (ultrasonic and airbrush) and dip processes for this purpose. Substrates of up to 300 by 300 mm2 can be homogeneously coated. Various metal oxide thin films can be fabricated using sol-gel precursors, nano particle dispersions or metal salt solutions. Such processes are used to produce barrier coatings, nonstick surfaces or antistatic properties on a variety of substrate materials.