Coating equipment

Single Wafer Spin Processor (Laurell Technologies Corp.)

Single Wafer Spin Processor
© Fraunhofer IWS
Single Wafer Spin Processor

The spin-coating technology allows us to apply homogeneous and defect free liquid films to the substrate by rotation spinning of the liquid. The spin-coater can be used for coatings, cleaning of substrates or etching. Usable liquids are any kind of solvents, basic or acid solutions or dispersions.


  • model: WS-650Mz-8NPP-Lite Single Wafer Spin Processor (Laurell Technologies Corp.)
  • size of process chamber: Ø 318 mm
  • size of substrate: up to Ø 200 mm, 178 mm x 178 mm, depth 0,1 - 1 mm
  • velocity: 100 - 1200 RPM

Ultrasonic spray-pyrolysis unit

Ultrasonic- spray-pyrolysis system with cooled ultrasonic head and heated substrate carrier
© Fraunhofer IWS
Ultrasonic- spray-pyrolysis system with cooled ultrasonic head and heated substrate carrier

With this ultrasonic spray unit it is possible to homogeneously apply large area layer systems to substrates using pyrolysis or wet spraying. Pyrolysis requires a sufficiently high substrate temperature for the precursor solution so that all components are able to pass into a gaseous state. The layer precipitates onto the substrate through a chemical vapor reaction. After the process of wet spraying the layer material and furthermore a solvent film remains on the substrate. The solvent evaporates when heated afterwards.

Our activities in this field include large area spraying of oxide-ceramics (e.g. aluminum-oxide as passivation layer for photovoltaics) and semiconductors (e.g. ZnO:Al) and spraying of dispersions, for example made of CNTs for manufacturing of transparent conductive layers.


  • ultrasonic nozzles (Sono Tek Corp.):
  • 120 kHz, Vortex, drop size 19 µm diameter for water
    precursor flow rate: up to 1.5 ml/min, circular spray pattern
  • 120 kHz, surface nozzle
    precursor flow rate: 10 ml/min - 70 ml/min, spray width: 5 - 60 cm
  • max. substrate size: up to 156 mm x 156 mm
  • max. substrate temperature: 450 °C
  • distance nozzle - substrate: up to 200 mm
  • atmosphere: air or nitrogen
  • movement system for nozzle: nozzle movable in x- and y-direction with max. 200 mm/s